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Library Subject Guides

Music: Citation Styles

Which Citation Style Do I Use?

The School of Music uses two citation styles, MHRA and APA. Check with your lecturer or supervisor if you are unsure which one to use for assignments in your course.

MHRA

 

MHRAStyle Tip Sheet  – a summary with examples of the common types of references used in essay and assignments.

MHRA Style Guide (2.2 MB) – full text of the guide from the Modern Humanities Research Association.


MHRA output style for EndNote may be downloaded from


APA Style

APA Style  – UC Library pages that give an outline of the style and the most common types of references

 

Grove Music Online

  • The top of the article should have all the details needed for the reference. Use these details to create a reference for the APA style for an electronic encyclopedia
    • The DOI is correctly formatted, except change the "doi-org.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz" string of characters to "doi.org"
  • The Cite button , which gives examples for APA as well as MLA and Chicago referencing styles, is not fully reliable, unfortunately. 

 

Examples

1. Article with authors

Details at the top of the article
Porter, Cole (Albert)
Deane L. Root and Gerald Bordman
https://doi-org.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz/10.1093/gmo/
9781561592630.article.22147
Published in print: 20 January 2001 Published online: 2001

APA reference

Root, D. L., & Bordman, G. (2001). Porter, Cole (Albert). In Grove Music Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.22147

APA in-text citation
My assignment text... (Root & Bordman, 2001)

2. Article without any authors

Details at the top of the article​
Colotomic structure [colotomy] (from Gk. kōlon: ‘section’, ‘limb’)
https://doi-org.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz/10.1093/gmo/
9781561592630.article.06155
Published in print: 20 January 2001 Published online: 2001

APA reference

Colotomic structure (colotomy) (from Gk. kōlon: ‘section’, ‘limb’). (2001). In Grove Music Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.06155

APA in-text citation
My assignment text... (“Colotomic Structure,” 2001)

  • As shown here, the article title can be shortened in the in-text citation (so long as it is clear which reference is mentioned)
  • Also, in-text citations use “title case” in article titles (Colotomic Structure), whereas in the reference “sentence case” is used (Colotomic structure)

3. Article with a specific date published online

Details at the top of the article
Xaphoon [Pocket Sax]
Laurence Libin
https://doi-org.ezproxy.canterbury.ac.nz/10.1093/
gmo/9781561592630.article.L2215116
Published in print: 08 December 2014 Published online: 26 October 2011

APA reference

Libin, L. (2011, October 26). Xaphoon (pocket sax). In Grove Music Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.L2215116

APA in-text citation
My assignment text ... (Libin, 2011)

The APA output style for EndNote (APA 6th) is bundled with the standard installation

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MHRA Style Tip Sheet

The MHRA style is often used in the arts and humanities, particularly in the United Kingdom. It uses footnotes that fully reference a citation. The footnoting is MHRA’s major advantage: a reader does not need to consult the bibliography to find a reference, as the footnote provides all the details. The examples on these pages are based on the MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses, 2nd edn (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2008).

Footnotes

Use your word-processing program to create the footnotes. Insert the footnote at a natural break, usually at the end of a sentence or paragraph. Place it after the item that you wish to acknowledge or annotate. Sequential numbering will happen automatically with the program.

The footnote must include the full bibliographic details of the item, according to the type as listed below. Second and subsequent references to the same item can be abbreviated, most commonly to author’s surname and page number.

General principles for footnotes

  • For titles in English, all the principle words are capitalised. The first word of a subtitle following a colon is always capitalised. For titles in other languages, follow the capitalisation rules of the language in question
  • Authors’ names appear in spoken word order, i.e. as firstname lastname
  • Book and journal titles are italicised
  • Article titles and chapter titles appear in quotation marks
  • Encyclopedia and dictionary entry headwords appear in quotation marks, e.g. “sonata”
  • Titles of operas, songs, poems, stories, etc.  appear in quotation marks
  • Use p. if the information comes from a single page, pp. if it spans two or more pages, e.g. pp. 2–6
  • All notes end with a full stop, except when the note ends with a square bracket
  • The pattern of information required is who-what-where-when
    Author’s  name, Title of Whole Work in Italics (Place of publication: Publisher, year),  p. xx

Bibliography

Your essay should conclude with a full bibliography of works consulted. The author’s surname appears first. Arrange the bibliography alphabetically by surname; if there is no author, list under title.

Footnote and Bibliography Citations by Item Type

The examples on these pages are based on the MHRA Style Guide: A Handbook for Authors, Editors, and Writers of Theses, 2nd edn (London: Modern Humanities Research Association, 2008).

Book  (1 author)

First Footnote
Jon W. Finson, Nineteenth-Century Music: The Western Classical Tradition (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002), p. 65.

Second and subsequent footnotes
Finson, p. 71.

Bibliography
Finson, Jon W., Nineteenth-Century Music: The Western Classical Tradition  (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002).

Books (2–3 authors)

First footnote
Gillyanne Hayes and Jeremy Fisher, Successful Singing Auditions (London: Black, 2002).

Second and subsequent footnotes
Hayes and Fisher,  p. 22.

Bibliography
Kayes, Gillyanne and Jeremy Fisher, Successful Singing Auditions (London: Black, 2002).

Book (4 or more authors)

First footnote
Jen-yen Chen and others, Three Masses from Vienna: A Capella Masses (Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 2004), pp. 24–25.

Bibliography
Chen, Jen-yen and others, Three Masses from Vienna: A Capella Masses (Middleton, WI: A-R Editions, 2004).

Chapter or Article in an Edited Book

Formula
Author , ‘Title of Chapter’, in Book Title: Subtitle, editors (Place of publication: Publisher name, Year of publication), Page numbers.

First Footnote
Susan Fast, ‘Music, Contexts and Meaning in U2’, in Expression in Pop-Rock Music: A Collection of Critical and Analytical Essays, ed. by Walter Everett (New York: Garland, 2000), pp. 33–58.

Second and subsequent footnotes
Fast, p. 24.

Bibliography
Fast, Susan, ‘Music, Contexts and Meaning in U2’, in Expression in Pop-Rock Music: A Collection of Critical and Analytical Essays, ed. by Walter Everett (New York: Garland, 2000), pp. 33–58.

Journal article (print)

Formula
Author, ‘Title of Article’, Journal Title, volume (year), page number to page number.

First Footnote
John M. Jennings, ‘French Baroque Chamber Music’, Early Music, 36 (2005), 142–43 (p.142).

Second and subsequent footnotes
Jennings, p. 43.

Bibliography
Jennings, John M., 'French Baroque Chamber Music', Early Music, 36 (2005), 142–43.

Newspaper Article

‘Big Sing Tests Talents of High School Choirs’, The Press, 12 June 2010, p. 5.

 

Online Databases and Encyclopedias Walker, Alan et al. “Liszt, Franz.” in Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online.<http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/48265> [accessed 18 Apr. 2011]
Electronic  source, e.g. web page

Formula
Author name, ‘Title of Item’, Title of Whole Resource  (year of publication or update) <DOI or URL> , [date  you viewed it].

First Footnote

Margo Schulter, ‘Pythagorean Tuning and Medieval Polyphony’, Early Music FAQ (1998) <http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/harmony/pyth.html> [accessed 20 March 2011]

Bibliography
Schulter, Margo, ‘Pythagorean Tuning and Medieval Polyphony’, Early Music FAQ (1998) <http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/harmony/pyth.html> [accessed 20 March 2011]

A Thesis or Dissertation Jane, Philip. ‘An Historical Survey of the Establishment of an Orchestral Tradition in Christchurch to 1939’ (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Canterbury, 2009).
A Film or Broadcast The Piano, written and directed by Jane Campion, (Optimum Releasing, 2005) [on DVD]
A Piece of Music As for Books for a whole piece; as for Book Chapters if it is a piece from a collection or anthology