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Library Subject Guides

Systematic Reviews: Home

Library support

Here’s how Subject Librarians can help with your systematic review:

– Help formulate your PICO question

– Assist with developing search strategies across appropriate databases

– Provide advice on how to document the search for the methods section of your review

– EndNote support

– Research data management

What is a systematic review?

Systematic reviews aim to find and evaluate all studies, published and unpublished, relevant to a research question. They use systematic methods to minimise bias and they also use transparent methods that allow for replication and verification

Key characteristics

• a clearly stated set of objectives with pre-defined eligibility criteria for studies;

• an explicit, reproducible methodology;

• a systematic search that attempts to identify all studies that meet the eligibility criteria;

• an assessment of the validity of the findings of the included studies, for example through the assessment of risk of bias

• a systematic presentation, and synthesis, of the characteristics and findings of the included studies.

Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. (2019). p.xxiii

What is a meta-analysis?

A meta-analysis is an optional component of a systematic review. A meta analysis uses statistical methods to quantitatively evaluate pooled data from single studies. 

If you are writing a systematic review, you need to decide whether it makes sense to include a meta analysis. This can be a difficult decision, see the books listed on this page for guidance.

Differences between systematic reviews and traditional literature reviews

For a description of the most commonly used review types in Health Sciences see:

Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: An analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information & Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91–108.

The table below is adapted from this article.


Systematic review Literature review

Seeks to systematically search for, appraise and synthesise research evidence, often adhering to guidelines on the conduct of a review

Generic term: published materials that provide an examination of recent or current literature.

Can cover wide range of subjects at various levels of comprehensiveness. May include research findings


Aims for exhaustive, comprehensive searching

May or may not include comprehensive searching


Quality assessment may determine inclusion/exclusion

May or may not include quality assessment. Relies on author's judgment

Typically narrative, with tabular accompaniment
Typically narrative

What is known; recommendations for practice. What remains unknown; uncertainty around findings, recommendations for future research

May include meta analysis

Analysis may be chronological, conceptual, thematic, etc

Subject Librarian

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Margaret Paterson

NOTE: Appointments are available via Zoom or in-person in Central Library. Email me with any questions relating to Psychology, Speech and Hearing, or Health Sciences.

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