This is a basic introduction to the APA citation style, based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). APA style includes: an in-text citation in your document to briefly identify the source you have quoted or paraphrased; a Reference List for all in-text citations at the end of the document. For a general overview of APA referencing and practice examples see the tutorial on APA referencing.
Remember to format your citations with a hanging indent for second and subsequent lines of a reference.
New Zealand government departments are increasingly adopting bilingual names. APA practice is to include both the English and Māori names in the order provided in the source, regardless of prominence.
This can lead to rather long in-text citations. One method for dealing with this is to abbreviate the corporate author names after the first use.
First citation: (Te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga–Ministry of Education & New Zealand Teachers Council–Te Pouherenga Kaiako o Aotearaoa [TTOTM & NZTC], 2011).
All subsequent citations: (TTOTM & NZTC, 2011)
(Note: We have abbreviated the first name for each corporate author for simplicity, with the abbreviation still leading your reader to the correct place in the reference list)
If you are using images in undergraduate assignments, it is easiest to choose images in the public domain and/or with Creative Commons licenses. The PDF below offers guidance on how to locate and attribute such images.
If you are using images as part of your research (or are using an image that is copyrighted), please refer to the copyright advice provided on our research guides.
School Journals stories and articles should be referenced in a similar manner to journal articles. Note that the year is used where you would usually put volume information, and the part and number information is in brackets, where you would usually put the issue number. More recently published School Journal stories refer to levels rather than parts and numbers. An example for both types:
Example references for print copy or electronic copies found via Journal Surf (i.e. behind paywall):
Wood Carving (by B. Martin in School Journal 2005, Year 5, Part 2, No. 1) is referenced as follows:
Martin, B. (2005). Wood carving. School Journal, 2005(Pt. 2, No. 1), 28–32.
Mahinga Kai Crusaders (by S. Walsh in School Journal 2014 (Level 3)) is referenced as follows:
Walsh, S. (2014). Mahinga kai crusaders. School Journal, 2014(April, Lvl. 3), 36–43.
Example references for electronic copy found via TKI (i.e. freely available):
Walsh, S. (2014). Mahinga kai crusaders. School Journal, 2014(April, Lvl. 3), 36–43. https://instructionalseries.tki.org.nz/Instructional-Series/School-Journal/School-Journal-Level-3-September-2014/Mahinga-Kai-Crusaders
Te Tāhuhu o Te Mātauranga–Ministry of Education & New Zealand Teachers Council–Te Pouherenga Kaiako o Aotearoa. (2011). Tātaiako: Cultural competencies for teachers of Māori learners. Ministry of Education. https://teachingcouncil.nz/required/Tataiako.pdf
(nb. This is a reference for the electronic version of Tātaiako)
Education Council New Zealand–Matatū Aotearoa. (2011). Tātaiako: Cultural competencies for teachers of Māori learners. Ministry of Education.
(nb. This is a reference for the original print version of Tātaiako, published before the Education Council changed its name to the New Zealand Teachers Council)
Education Council New Zealand–Matatū Aotearoa. (2015). Graduating teacher standards: Aotearoa New Zealand. http://www.educationcouncil.org.nz/sites/default/files/gts-poster.pdf
Education Council New Zealand–Matatū Aotearoa. (2017). Our code our standards: Code of professional responsibility and standards for the teaching profession: Ngā tikanga matatika ngā paerewa: Ngā tikanga matatika mō te haepapa ngaiotanga me ngā paerewa mō te umanga whakaakoranga.
Education Council New Zealand–Matatū Aotearoa. (n.d.). Ngā paerewa pouako paetahi: Aotearoa. http://www.educationcouncil.org.nz/sites/default/files/gts-poster-maori.pdf
Ministry of Education–Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga. (2017). Te whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa: Early childhood curriculum.
A PDF document.
Ministry of Education. (2009). Te aho arataki marau mō te ako i te reo Māori—Kura auraki: Curriculum guidelines for teaching and learning te reo Māori in English-medium schools: Years 1–13. Learning Media.
Ministry of Education–Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga. (2007). The New Zealand curriculum: Achievement objectives by learning area: Set of 8 charts. https://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/content/download/1109/11992/file/Charts2.pdf
Ministry of Education–Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga. (2011, November 24). Manaakitanga. New Zealand Curriculum Guides – Senior Secondary. https://seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/The-arts/Pedagogy/Culturally-responsive-learning-environments/Manaakitanga
Ministry of Education–Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga. (2014, April 3). Mathematics and statistics: Achievement objectives. The New Zealand Curriculum Online. https://nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz/The-New-Zealand-Curriculum/Mathematics-and-statistics/Achievement-objectives
Ministry of Education–Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga. (n.d.). Sustainability. Te Whāriki Online. https://tewhariki.tki.org.nz/en/teaching-strategies-and-resources/belonging/sustainability/
The whole work:
Carr, M., Lee, W., & Jones, C. (2004–2009). Kei tua o te pae: Assessment for learning: Early childhood exemplars. Learning Media.
An individual book:
Carr, M., Lee, W., & Jones, C. (2007). Kei tua o te pae: Assessment for learning: Early childhood exemplars (Book 15). Learning Media.
An individual book listing a co-author (applies to book 3, 8, 9, 17 and book 18 only) – add the co-author/s:
Carr, M., Lee, W., Jones, C., & Peters, S. (2009). Kei tua o te pae: Assessment for learning: Early childhood exemplars (Book 18). Learning Media.
Carr, M., Lee, W., Jones, C., & Hatherly, A. (2009). Kei tua o te pae: Assessment for learning: Early childhood exemplars (Book 17). Learning Media.
If a corporate author, e.g. a Centre, is listed in addition to personal authors, do not include it.
If a paper presentation or poster session at a conference is not published, list the presenter, specific date, name of paper with the format in square brackets, and place. For example:
Carr, M. (2003, November). Changing the lens [Paper presentation]. New Zealand Association for Research in Education Conference, Auckland, New Zealand.
If, however, the paper was published treat it as a book or a chapter in a book (or a journal).
The format for Acts is as follows:
In-text, put the title of the Act in brackets.
(Education Act 1989)
Reference list, put:
Title of the Act. Website url (if retrieved online)
Education Act 1989. http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/