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Philosophy: PHIL 139 – Sources and Referencing

PHIL 139 – Ethics, Politics and Justice

Appropriate Sources | Sources: Where to Start | Sources: Searching Further | Referencing

Appropriate Sources for the Essay


Edited book chapters

Journal articles

Articles from philosophy encyclopedias

Newspaper articles

Magazine articles

University academics’ webpages

Government or NGO webpages

Articles or books too difficult for you to understand

Blog post

Commercial websites or advertising

Lecture notes

AKO | LEARN lecturer’s notes and PowerPoint slides

Lobby-group websites or publications

Social media (Facebook, Twitter)

Wikipedia articles

YouTube videos

  • Green: appropriate types of sources for your essay.
  • Orange: may be appropriate; consider carefully where the source was located, how reliable it is and why you are using it. Use sparingly.
  • Red: very unlikely to be appropriate unless identified by your lecturer as a source they want you to look at.

Sources: Where to Start


Books on High Demand for PHIL 139


Topical Dictionaries and Encyclopedias


Philosophy Encyclopedias

Sources: Searching Further

Find physical books and ebooks at UC Library


Find articles in selected philosophy journals
Searches articles in Philosophy Compass, Philosophy Now and Think.


For PHIL 139 we recommend you use APA 7th style and include page numbers in all in-text citations.


Basic Format for All Types of Reference

Who. (When). What. Where.


Wolff, J. (2016). An introduction to political philosophy (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Edited Book Chapters and Encyclopedia Articles

Flam, H. (2009). Authentic emotions as ethical guides? A case for scepticism. In M. Salmela & V. Mayer (Eds.), Emotions, ethics, and authenticity (pp. 195–214). John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Mulder, D. H. (n.d.). Objectivity. In J. Fieser & B. Dowden (General Eds.), Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 5, 2021, from

Sober, E. (1998). Evolution and ethics. In T. Crane & E. Craig (Eds.), The Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy. Routledge.

Journal Articles

Earp, B. D. (2016). Science cannot determine human values. Think, 15(43), 17–23.

Pölzler, T., & Wright, J. C. (2019). Empirical research on folk moral objectivism. Philosophy Compass, 14(5), Article e12589.

In-text Citations

Citations within the prose of your essay indicate which reference you are referring to in order to acknowledge the source of the idea, opinion or fact you are writing about.

Citations consist of:

  • Who (author surnames)
  • When (year)
  • Part of the source you used (usually a page or pages).

Examples of narrative and parenthetical citations using the references above:

Wolff (2016, pp. 111–113) ... OR (Wolff, 2016, pp. 111–113)
Flam (2009, p. 198) ... OR (Flam, 2009, p. 198)
Mulder (n.d., Objectivist Theories section) ... OR (Mulder, n.d., Objectivist Theories section)
Mulder (n.d., “Does Agreement Among Subjects” section) ... OR (Mulder, n.d., “Does Agreement Among Subjects” section)
– put “ ” around the section title if you shorten it.
Sober (1998, The Is/Ought Distinction section) ... OR (Sober, 1998, The Is/Ought Distinction section)
Earp (2016, pp. 17–21) ... OR (Earp, 2016, pp. 17–21)
Pölzler and Wright (2019, p. 9) ... OR (Pölzler & Wright, 2019, p. 9)


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