Edited book chapters
Articles from philosophy encyclopedias
University academics’ webpages
Government or NGO webpages
Articles or books too difficult for you to understand
Commercial websites or advertising
AKO | LEARN lecturer’s notes and PowerPoint slides
Lobby-group websites or publications
Social media (Facebook, Twitter)
For PHIL 139 we recommend you use APA 7th style and include page numbers in all in-text citations.
Who. (When). What. Where.
Wolff, J. (2016). An introduction to political philosophy (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Flam, H. (2009). Authentic emotions as ethical guides? A case for scepticism. In M. Salmela & V. Mayer (Eds.), Emotions, ethics, and authenticity (pp. 195–214). John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Mulder, D. H. (n.d.). Objectivity. In J. Fieser & B. Dowden (General Eds.), Internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved July 5, 2021, from https://iep.utm.edu/objectiv/
Sober, E. (1998). Evolution and ethics. In T. Crane & E. Craig (Eds.), The Routledge encyclopedia of philosophy. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780415249126-S022-1
Earp, B. D. (2016). Science cannot determine human values. Think, 15(43), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1477175616000026
Pölzler, T., & Wright, J. C. (2019). Empirical research on folk moral objectivism. Philosophy Compass, 14(5), Article e12589. https://doi.org/10.1111/phc3.12589
Citations within the prose of your essay indicate which reference you are referring to in order to acknowledge the source of the idea, opinion or fact you are writing about.
Citations consist of:
Examples of narrative and parenthetical citations using the references above:
Wolff (2016, pp. 111–113) ... OR (Wolff, 2016, pp. 111–113)
Flam (2009, p. 198) ... OR (Flam, 2009, p. 198)
Mulder (n.d., Objectivist Theories section) ... OR (Mulder, n.d., Objectivist Theories section)
Mulder (n.d., “Does Agreement Among Subjects” section) ... OR (Mulder, n.d., “Does Agreement Among Subjects” section)
– put “ ” around the section title if you shorten it.
Sober (1998, The Is/Ought Distinction section) ... OR (Sober, 1998, The Is/Ought Distinction section)
Earp (2016, pp. 17–21) ... OR (Earp, 2016, pp. 17–21)
Pölzler and Wright (2019, p. 9) ... OR (Pölzler & Wright, 2019, p. 9)